'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investmentâ€™s overall performance.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the total return, or performance of -43.6% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Rare Earth Strategic Metals ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (74.4%)
- Looking at total return in of -4.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (47.2%).

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Rare Earth Strategic Metals ETF is -10.9%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (11.8%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (13.8%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of -1.5% is lower, thus worse.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the historical 30 days volatility of 25.9% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Rare Earth Strategic Metals ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (13.6%)
- Compared with SPY (12.9%) in the period of the last 3 years, the volatility of 25.1% is larger, thus worse.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The downside deviation over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Rare Earth Strategic Metals ETF is 25.9%, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (14.9%) in the same period.
- Looking at downside risk in of 25.9% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (14.6%).

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Rare Earth Strategic Metals ETF is -0.52, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.68) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.88) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of -0.16 is smaller, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of -0.52 in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Rare Earth Strategic Metals ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.62)
- Compared with SPY (0.77) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of -0.16 is smaller, thus worse.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Ulcer Index over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Rare Earth Strategic Metals ETF is 35 , which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (3.99 ) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index is 32 , which is greater, thus worse than the value of 4.1 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-19.3 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -59 days of VanEck Vectors Rare Earth Strategic Metals ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (-19.3 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -59 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The maximum days below previous high over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Rare Earth Strategic Metals ETF is 592 days, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (187 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (139 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days under water of 440 days is larger, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (41 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average days below previous high of 229 days of VanEck Vectors Rare Earth Strategic Metals ETF is higher, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (36 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days below previous high of 151 days is higher, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- "Year" returns in the table above are not equal to the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VanEck Vectors Rare Earth Strategic Metals ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.