'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The total return, or increase in value over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF is 86.6%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (98.3%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (27.2%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return, or performance of 37.4% is higher, thus better.

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (14.7%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual return (CAGR) of 13.3% of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (8.4%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 11.2% is higher, thus better.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The historical 30 days volatility over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF is 17.8%, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (20.9%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation is 13.8%, which is lower, thus better than the value of 17.7% from the benchmark.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The downside deviation over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF is 12.3%, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (14.9%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk is 9.4%, which is lower, thus better than the value of 12.4% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF is 0.61, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (0.58) in the same period.
- Looking at risk / return profile (Sharpe) in of 0.63 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.33).

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.82) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 0.88 of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF is higher, thus better.
- Looking at downside risk / excess return profile in of 0.93 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.47).

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the Downside risk index of 6.6 in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.32 )
- Compared with SPY (10 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Downside risk index of 6.59 is lower, thus better.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum DrawDown of -29.7 days of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF is higher, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (-24.5 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -20.3 days is greater, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The maximum time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF is 332 days, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (488 days) in the same period.
- Looking at maximum days below previous high in of 332 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (488 days).

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The average days below previous high over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF is 80 days, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (123 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (177 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 92 days is smaller, thus better.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
[Show Details]

- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF are hypothetical and do not account for slippage, fees or taxes.