'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The total return over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF is 30.5%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (62.7%) in the same period.
- Looking at total return in of 31.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (34.7%).

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The annual performance (CAGR) over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF is 5.5%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (10.2%) in the same period.
- Looking at annual performance (CAGR) in of 9.6% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (10.5%).

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The volatility over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF is 18.9%, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (20.9%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (24.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 20.7% is lower, thus better.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside risk over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF is 13.6%, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (15.3%) in the same period.
- Looking at downside volatility in of 14.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (17.6%).

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF is 0.16, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.37) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.33) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0.34 is greater, thus better.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.22 in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.51)
- Looking at ratio of annual return and downside deviation in of 0.49 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.45).

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the Downside risk index of 7.55 in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (7.71 )
- Compared with SPY (9.08 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Downside risk index of 7.03 is lower, thus better.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -29.7 days of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF is higher, thus better.
- Looking at maximum drop from peak to valley in of -29.7 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to SPY (-33.7 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (189 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 299 days of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF is higher, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is 207 days, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 189 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (46 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 79 days of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF is higher, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark is 55 days, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 45 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
[Show Details]

- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VanEck Vectors Pharmaceutical ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.