'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (78.4%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or performance of 28.7% of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- Looking at total return, or performance in of 20.6% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (44.1%).

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is 5.4%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (12.3%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (12.9%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 6.4% is smaller, thus worse.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The 30 days standard deviation over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is 18.3%, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (19.9%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the volatility is 21.4%, which is lower, thus better than the value of 23.1% from the benchmark.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (14.6%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside deviation of 13.5% of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is lower, thus better.
- Looking at downside risk in of 15.8% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (16.9%).

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.49) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0.16 of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- Looking at ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) in of 0.18 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.45).

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The ratio of annual return and downside deviation over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is 0.22, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.67) in the same period.
- Looking at ratio of annual return and downside deviation in of 0.25 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.62).

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The Ulcer Ratio over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is 7.52 , which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (6.16 ) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (6.87 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index of 8.74 is higher, thus worse.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The maximum DrawDown over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is -34.4 days, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the same period.
- Looking at maximum DrawDown in of -34.4 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-33.7 days).

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 246 days in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (139 days)
- Looking at maximum days under water in of 246 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (119 days).

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (35 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average days under water of 69 days of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is higher, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (27 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 69 days is higher, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.