'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the total return of 115.3% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (109.2%)
- Looking at total return, or performance in of 74.1% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to SPY (33.3%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual return (CAGR) of 16.6% of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is greater, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (10.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual return (CAGR) of 20.3% is larger, thus better.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the volatility of 23.2% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (20.9%)
- During the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation is 22.7%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 17.6% from the benchmark.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The downside volatility over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is 16.3%, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (14.9%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk is 15.1%, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 12.3% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0.61 in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.64)
- Looking at Sharpe Ratio in of 0.79 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.43).

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The ratio of annual return and downside deviation over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is 0.87, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.9) in the same period.
- Looking at downside risk / excess return profile in of 1.18 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.62).

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the Downside risk index of 8.35 in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.32 )
- During the last 3 years, the Downside risk index is 6.85 , which is lower, thus better than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The maximum reduction from previous high over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is -34.3 days, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the same period.
- Looking at maximum drop from peak to valley in of -21.4 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to SPY (-24.5 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 246 days in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (488 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days under water is 196 days, which is smaller, thus better than the value of 488 days from the benchmark.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (123 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 59 days of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is smaller, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the average days below previous high is 50 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 176 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF are hypothetical and do not account for slippage, fees or taxes.