'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (36.4%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or increase in value of -3.4% of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at total return in of -11.8% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (14.9%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The annual return (CAGR) over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is -0.8%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (6.4%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (4.7%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual return (CAGR) of -4.5% is smaller, thus worse.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The volatility over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is 17.1%, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (17.8%) in the same period.
- Looking at volatility in of 18.3% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (20%).

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (13.2%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside deviation of 12.9% of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is lower, thus better.
- Looking at downside deviation in of 14.2% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (15.1%).

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is -0.19, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.22) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.11) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of -0.38 is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.3) in the period of the last 5 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation of -0.25 of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (0.15) in the period of the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation of -0.49 is lower, thus worse.

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (4.93 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Ratio of 5.75 of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is greater, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (5.58 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index of 5.87 is higher, thus worse.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum reduction from previous high of -34.3 days in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high is -34.3 days, which is lower, thus worse than the value of -33.7 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (187 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 265 days of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF is greater, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum days under water in of 232 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (139 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the average days under water of 78 days in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (42 days)
- During the last 3 years, the average days under water is 64 days, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 36 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VanEck Vectors Uranium & Nuclear Energy ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.