'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The total return, or increase in value over 5 years of iShares Global Utilities ETF is 33.6%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (80.4%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or performance is 4.8%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 30.7% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6% in the last 5 years of iShares Global Utilities ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (12.6%)
- Looking at annual return (CAGR) in of 1.6% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (9.4%).

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (21.3%) in the period of the last 5 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 20.4% of iShares Global Utilities ETF is smaller, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the volatility is 16%, which is smaller, thus better than the value of 17.6% from the benchmark.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.3%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk of 14.6% of iShares Global Utilities ETF is lower, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (12.3%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside volatility of 11.6% is lower, thus better.

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of iShares Global Utilities ETF is 0.17, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.47) in the same period.
- Looking at ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) in of -0.06 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.39).

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The downside risk / excess return profile over 5 years of iShares Global Utilities ETF is 0.24, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.66) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.56) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of -0.08 is lower, thus worse.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Ulcer Index over 5 years of iShares Global Utilities ETF is 8.46 , which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (9.43 ) in the same period.
- Looking at Ulcer Index in of 7.9 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (10 ).

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The maximum drop from peak to valley over 5 years of iShares Global Utilities ETF is -34.2 days, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley is -22.5 days, which is larger, thus better than the value of -24.5 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The maximum days under water over 5 years of iShares Global Utilities ETF is 412 days, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (479 days) in the same period.
- Looking at maximum time in days below previous high water mark in of 412 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (479 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (119 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average days under water of 119 days of iShares Global Utilities ETF is greater, thus worse.
- Looking at average time in days below previous high water mark in of 131 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (173 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares Global Utilities ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.