'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the total return, or increase in value of -2.9% in the last 5 years of iShares Global Comm Services ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (36.4%)
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or performance is -7%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 14.9% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (6.4%) in the period of the last 5 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of -0.6% of iShares Global Comm Services ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at annual return (CAGR) in of -2.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (4.7%).

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The volatility over 5 years of iShares Global Comm Services ETF is 16.7%, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (17.8%) in the same period.
- Looking at 30 days standard deviation in of 18.2% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (20%).

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the downside volatility of 12.5% in the last 5 years of iShares Global Comm Services ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (13.2%)
- Compared with SPY (15.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk of 13.9% is lower, thus better.

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.22) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of -0.18 of iShares Global Comm Services ETF is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) is -0.27, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.11 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The ratio of annual return and downside deviation over 5 years of iShares Global Comm Services ETF is -0.25, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.3) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile is -0.35, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.15 from the benchmark.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (4.93 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Ratio of 6.9 of iShares Global Comm Services ETF is higher, thus worse.
- Looking at Ulcer Ratio in of 7.16 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (5.58 ).

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The maximum DrawDown over 5 years of iShares Global Comm Services ETF is -27.1 days, which is larger, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown of -27.1 days is greater, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 334 days in the last 5 years of iShares Global Comm Services ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (187 days)
- Looking at maximum days below previous high in of 313 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (139 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The average days below previous high over 5 years of iShares Global Comm Services ETF is 118 days, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (42 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average time in days below previous high water mark in of 84 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (36 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares Global Comm Services ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.