'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (67.7%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or performance of % of iShares Cybersecurity and Tech ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (37%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value of 32.9% is smaller, thus worse.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The annual performance (CAGR) over 5 years of iShares Cybersecurity and Tech ETF is %, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (10.9%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) is 9.9%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 11.1% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The 30 days standard deviation over 5 years of iShares Cybersecurity and Tech ETF is %, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (21.4%) in the same period.
- Looking at volatility in of 28.2% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (24.8%).

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside deviation over 5 years of iShares Cybersecurity and Tech ETF is %, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (15.5%) in the same period.
- Looking at downside risk in of 20.1% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (17.9%).

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.39) in the period of the last 5 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of of iShares Cybersecurity and Tech ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (0.34) in the period of the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 0.26 is smaller, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.54) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of of iShares Cybersecurity and Tech ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (0.48) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.37 is lower, thus worse.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (8.47 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Ratio of of iShares Cybersecurity and Tech ETF is lower, thus better.
- Looking at Ulcer Ratio in of 14 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (10 ).

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum drop from peak to valley of days in the last 5 years of iShares Cybersecurity and Tech ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Looking at maximum drop from peak to valley in of -34.4 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-33.7 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (231 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum days below previous high of days of iShares Cybersecurity and Tech ETF is lower, thus better.
- Looking at maximum days below previous high in of 268 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (231 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the average days under water of days in the last 5 years of iShares Cybersecurity and Tech ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (54 days)
- Compared with SPY (58 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days under water of 68 days is higher, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares Cybersecurity and Tech ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.