'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The total return over 5 years of iShares Global Infrastructure ETF is 30.1%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (81.9%) in the same period.
- Looking at total return, or increase in value in of 18.6% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (46.1%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the annual performance (CAGR) of 5.4% in the last 5 years of iShares Global Infrastructure ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (12.7%)
- During the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) is 5.9%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 13.5% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the volatility of 19.3% in the last 5 years of iShares Global Infrastructure ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (19.8%)
- Looking at 30 days standard deviation in of 23.6% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (23%).

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (14.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside volatility of 14.6% of iShares Global Infrastructure ETF is higher, thus worse.
- Looking at downside risk in of 18% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (16.8%).

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of iShares Global Infrastructure ETF is 0.15, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.52) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) is 0.14, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.48 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The downside risk / excess return profile over 5 years of iShares Global Infrastructure ETF is 0.2, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.7) in the same period.
- Looking at downside risk / excess return profile in of 0.19 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.65).

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the Ulcer Index of 9.99 in the last 5 years of iShares Global Infrastructure ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (6.08 )
- Compared with SPY (6.77 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Downside risk index of 12 is larger, thus worse.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The maximum reduction from previous high over 5 years of iShares Global Infrastructure ETF is -42.1 days, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -42.1 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (139 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum days under water of 421 days of iShares Global Infrastructure ETF is greater, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days under water is 421 days, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 119 days from the benchmark.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The average time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of iShares Global Infrastructure ETF is 119 days, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (35 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the average days under water is 133 days, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 27 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares Global Infrastructure ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.