'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the total return of -6.7% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Indonesia Index ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (61.3%)
- During the last 3 years, the total return is -4.1%, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 31.6% from the benchmark.

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of -1.4% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Indonesia Index ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (10%)
- During the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) is -1.4%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 9.6% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (20.8%) in the period of the last 5 years, the volatility of 27.3% of VanEck Vectors Indonesia Index ETF is higher, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (24%) in the period of the last 3 years, the volatility of 30.2% is larger, thus worse.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The downside deviation over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Indonesia Index ETF is 20.2%, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (15.3%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside deviation is 22.5%, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 17.6% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.36) in the period of the last 5 years, the Sharpe Ratio of -0.14 of VanEck Vectors Indonesia Index ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) is -0.13, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.3 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.49) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of -0.19 of VanEck Vectors Indonesia Index ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (0.4) in the period of the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation of -0.17 is lower, thus worse.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the Ulcer Index of 22 in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Indonesia Index ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (7.61 )
- Looking at Ulcer Ratio in of 19 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (8.93 ).

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum DrawDown of -59.1 days in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Indonesia Index ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high is -54.8 days, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of -33.7 days from the benchmark.

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (185 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 1176 days of VanEck Vectors Indonesia Index ETF is greater, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum days below previous high in of 679 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (185 days).

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (46 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average days under water of 563 days of VanEck Vectors Indonesia Index ETF is greater, thus worse.
- Looking at average days under water in of 313 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (44 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VanEck Vectors Indonesia Index ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.