'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the total return of 31.7% in the last 5 years of iShares Currency Hedged MSCI United Kingdom ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (80%)
- Looking at total return, or increase in value in of 46.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to SPY (31.8%).

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the annual performance (CAGR) of 5.8% in the last 5 years of iShares Currency Hedged MSCI United Kingdom ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (12.5%)
- During the last 3 years, the annual return (CAGR) is 13.8%, which is higher, thus better than the value of 9.7% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The volatility over 5 years of iShares Currency Hedged MSCI United Kingdom ETF is 18.7%, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (21.3%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (17.6%) in the period of the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 13.7% is lower, thus better.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside risk over 5 years of iShares Currency Hedged MSCI United Kingdom ETF is 13.9%, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (15.3%) in the same period.
- Looking at downside deviation in of 9.2% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (12.3%).

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of iShares Currency Hedged MSCI United Kingdom ETF is 0.17, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.47) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.41) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0.83 is larger, thus better.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.66) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 0.23 of iShares Currency Hedged MSCI United Kingdom ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at downside risk / excess return profile in of 1.23 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.58).

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Ulcer Index of 9.47 in the last 5 years of iShares Currency Hedged MSCI United Kingdom ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.43 )
- During the last 3 years, the Downside risk index is 3.18 , which is lower, thus better than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The maximum DrawDown over 5 years of iShares Currency Hedged MSCI United Kingdom ETF is -33.1 days, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (-24.5 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown of -9.3 days is greater, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The maximum time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of iShares Currency Hedged MSCI United Kingdom ETF is 441 days, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (480 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is 180 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 480 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The average time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of iShares Currency Hedged MSCI United Kingdom ETF is 113 days, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (119 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (174 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days below previous high of 43 days is lower, thus better.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares Currency Hedged MSCI United Kingdom ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.