'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (77.1%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return of 38.5% of WisdomTree Europe Hedged Equity Fund is smaller, thus worse.
- Looking at total return in of 28.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (51.7%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) over 5 years of WisdomTree Europe Hedged Equity Fund is 6.7%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (12.1%) in the same period.
- Looking at annual return (CAGR) in of 8.7% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (14.9%).

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the 30 days standard deviation of 16.5% in the last 5 years of WisdomTree Europe Hedged Equity Fund, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (13.3%)
- During the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation is 13.1%, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 13% from the benchmark.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside deviation over 5 years of WisdomTree Europe Hedged Equity Fund is 12.1%, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (9.6%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside volatility is 9.5%, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 9.4% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 0.26 in the last 5 years of WisdomTree Europe Hedged Equity Fund, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.72)
- Compared with SPY (0.96) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0.47 is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 0.35 in the last 5 years of WisdomTree Europe Hedged Equity Fund, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (1)
- Compared with SPY (1.32) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.65 is lower, thus worse.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The Ulcer Ratio over 5 years of WisdomTree Europe Hedged Equity Fund is 8.73 , which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (3.97 ) in the same period.
- Looking at Ulcer Index in of 4.82 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (4.1 ).

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum reduction from previous high of -25.7 days in the last 5 years of WisdomTree Europe Hedged Equity Fund, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-19.3 days)
- Looking at maximum reduction from previous high in of -16.9 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to SPY (-19.3 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The maximum time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of WisdomTree Europe Hedged Equity Fund is 475 days, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (187 days) in the same period.
- Looking at maximum days under water in of 202 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (139 days).

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the average days below previous high of 126 days in the last 5 years of WisdomTree Europe Hedged Equity Fund, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (42 days)
- Looking at average time in days below previous high water mark in of 53 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (37 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of WisdomTree Europe Hedged Equity Fund are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.