'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The total return, or performance over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Natural Resources ETF is 54.1%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (63%) in the same period.
- Looking at total return in of 60.1% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to SPY (33.5%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 9% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Natural Resources ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (10.3%)
- During the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) is 17%, which is larger, thus better than the value of 10.1% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the historical 30 days volatility of 23.6% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Natural Resources ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (21.6%)
- During the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility is 28%, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 25.1% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside risk over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Natural Resources ETF is 17.5%, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (15.6%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside volatility is 20.7%, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 18.1% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 0.28 in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Natural Resources ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.36)
- Looking at risk / return profile (Sharpe) in of 0.52 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.3).

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 0.37 in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Natural Resources ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.5)
- Compared with SPY (0.42) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.7 is larger, thus better.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (8.88 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Downside risk index of 11 of VanEck Vectors Natural Resources ETF is higher, thus worse.
- Looking at Downside risk index in of 12 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (11 ).

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum DrawDown of -43.9 days in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Natural Resources ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown of -41 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (273 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 395 days of VanEck Vectors Natural Resources ETF is higher, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (273 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days under water of 199 days is smaller, thus better.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The average time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Natural Resources ETF is 118 days, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (57 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average time in days below previous high water mark in of 76 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (73 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VanEck Vectors Natural Resources ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.