'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the total return, or performance of 11.1% in the last 5 years of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (67.8%)
- Looking at total return, or performance in of 36.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (47.2%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The annual performance (CAGR) over 5 years of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund is 2.1%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (10.9%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (13.8%) in the period of the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 11% is lower, thus worse.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the volatility of 16.6% in the last 5 years of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (13.4%)
- During the last 3 years, the volatility is 15.3%, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 12.3% from the benchmark.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The downside volatility over 5 years of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund is 18.3%, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (14.7%) in the same period.
- Looking at downside risk in of 17.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (13.9%).

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The Sharpe Ratio over 5 years of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund is -0.02, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.63) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Sharpe Ratio is 0.55, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.92 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The ratio of annual return and downside deviation over 5 years of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund is -0.02, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.57) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.81) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.48 is smaller, thus worse.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Downside risk index of 20 in the last 5 years of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (3.99 )
- Compared with SPY (4.04 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio of 4.14 is greater, thus worse.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-19.3 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -39.4 days of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high is -9.6 days, which is greater, thus better than the value of -19.3 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 1151 days in the last 5 years of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (187 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is 238 days, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 139 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the average days under water of 536 days in the last 5 years of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (41 days)
- Looking at average days under water in of 63 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (36 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- "Year" returns in the table above are not equal to the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.