'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The total return, or performance over 5 years of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund is -22.9%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (80%) in the same period.
- Looking at total return, or performance in of -6.7% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (31.8%).

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of -5.1% in the last 5 years of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (12.5%)
- During the last 3 years, the annual return (CAGR) is -2.3%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 9.7% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the historical 30 days volatility of 21.3% in the last 5 years of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (21.3%)
- Compared with SPY (17.6%) in the period of the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation of 23.8% is higher, thus worse.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside deviation over 5 years of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund is 16.5%, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (15.3%) in the same period.
- Looking at downside deviation in of 18.7% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (12.3%).

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The Sharpe Ratio over 5 years of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund is -0.36, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.47) in the same period.
- Looking at risk / return profile (Sharpe) in of -0.2 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.41).

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside risk / excess return profile of -0.46 in the last 5 years of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.66)
- Compared with SPY (0.58) in the period of the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation of -0.26 is smaller, thus worse.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The Ulcer Index over 5 years of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund is 16 , which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (9.43 ) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index is 9.55 , which is lower, thus better than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum DrawDown of -40.3 days of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund is smaller, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (-24.5 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown of -40.3 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (480 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum days below previous high of 982 days of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund is higher, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum days below previous high in of 269 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (480 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The average days under water over 5 years of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund is 413 days, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (119 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average time in days below previous high water mark in of 70 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (174 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of WisdomTree Middle East Dividend Fund are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.