'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The total return, or increase in value over 5 years of Global X Gold Explorers ETF is 25.3%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (67.9%) in the same period.
- Looking at total return, or increase in value in of -9.1% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (44.5%).

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.6% in the last 5 years of Global X Gold Explorers ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (10.9%)
- Compared with SPY (13.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual return (CAGR) of -3.1% is smaller, thus worse.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The volatility over 5 years of Global X Gold Explorers ETF is 41%, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (21.4%) in the same period.
- Looking at historical 30 days volatility in of 37.9% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (18.7%).

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.4%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk of 28.5% of Global X Gold Explorers ETF is larger, thus worse.
- Looking at downside deviation in of 26.1% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (13.3%).

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of Global X Gold Explorers ETF is 0.05, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.39) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.56) in the period of the last 3 years, the Sharpe Ratio of -0.15 is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 0.07 in the last 5 years of Global X Gold Explorers ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.55)
- Looking at excess return divided by the downside deviation in of -0.22 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.79).

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the Ulcer Index of 22 in the last 5 years of Global X Gold Explorers ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.47 )
- Looking at Downside risk index in of 26 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (10 ).

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum reduction from previous high of -50.5 days in the last 5 years of Global X Gold Explorers ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown is -50.5 days, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of -24.5 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (354 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum days below previous high of 710 days of Global X Gold Explorers ETF is higher, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (354 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days below previous high of 710 days is greater, thus worse.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The average days under water over 5 years of Global X Gold Explorers ETF is 237 days, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (79 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the average days under water is 339 days, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 102 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Global X Gold Explorers ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.