'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the total return, or increase in value of -2.8% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Junior Gold Miners ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (62.7%)
- Looking at total return in of -13.2% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (34.7%).

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the annual return (CAGR) of -0.6% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Junior Gold Miners ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (10.2%)
- Compared with SPY (10.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of -4.6% is lower, thus worse.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (20.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the volatility of 45% of VanEck Vectors Junior Gold Miners ETF is larger, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the volatility is 52.9%, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 24.1% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside deviation of 31.3% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Junior Gold Miners ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (15.3%)
- Looking at downside risk in of 37.1% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (17.6%).

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of -0.07 in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Junior Gold Miners ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.37)
- During the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) is -0.13, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.33 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.51) in the period of the last 5 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation of -0.1 of VanEck Vectors Junior Gold Miners ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (0.45) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of -0.19 is smaller, thus worse.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Ulcer Index of 22 in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Junior Gold Miners ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (7.71 )
- During the last 3 years, the Downside risk index is 27 , which is higher, thus worse than the value of 9.08 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -57.8 days of VanEck Vectors Junior Gold Miners ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown of -57.8 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Which means for our asset as example:- The maximum time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Junior Gold Miners ETF is 545 days, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (189 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is 545 days, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 189 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the average days below previous high of 180 days in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Junior Gold Miners ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (46 days)
- Compared with SPY (45 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 209 days is higher, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VanEck Vectors Junior Gold Miners ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.