'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The total return, or performance over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Gold Miners ETF is 46.1%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (57.1%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (32%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return of -30.4% is lower, thus worse.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.9% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Gold Miners ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.5%)
- Looking at compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) in of -11.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (9.7%).

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the 30 days standard deviation of 39.1% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Gold Miners ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (21.5%)
- Looking at volatility in of 33.9% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (17.9%).

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside volatility over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Gold Miners ETF is 26.9%, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (15.5%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside deviation is 23.4%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 12.5% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.32) in the period of the last 5 years, the Sharpe Ratio of 0.14 of VanEck Vectors Gold Miners ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (0.41) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of -0.41 is smaller, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.45) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.2 of VanEck Vectors Gold Miners ETF is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation is -0.59, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.58 from the benchmark.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (9.57 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Index of 23 of VanEck Vectors Gold Miners ETF is larger, thus worse.
- Looking at Downside risk index in of 24 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (10 ).

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -49.8 days of VanEck Vectors Gold Miners ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (-24.5 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -46.5 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 795 days in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Gold Miners ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (439 days)
- Compared with SPY (439 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days below previous high of 367 days is smaller, thus better.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the average time in days below previous high water mark of 273 days in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Gold Miners ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (106 days)
- Looking at average time in days below previous high water mark in of 177 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (149 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VanEck Vectors Gold Miners ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.