'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the total return of 25.1% in the last 5 years of Invesco Frontier Markets ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (110.3%)
- Compared with SPY (39.7%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return, or performance of 27% is lower, thus worse.

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) over 5 years of Invesco Frontier Markets ETF is 4.6%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (16.1%) in the same period.
- Looking at annual return (CAGR) in of 8.3% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (11.8%).

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The 30 days standard deviation over 5 years of Invesco Frontier Markets ETF is 13.6%, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (20.9%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the volatility is 13%, which is lower, thus better than the value of 17.5% from the benchmark.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the downside volatility of 9.8% in the last 5 years of Invesco Frontier Markets ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (14.9%)
- Looking at downside deviation in of 9.2% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (12.2%).

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.65) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0.15 of Invesco Frontier Markets ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at Sharpe Ratio in of 0.45 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.53).

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the excess return divided by the downside deviation of 0.21 in the last 5 years of Invesco Frontier Markets ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.91)
- Compared with SPY (0.76) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 0.63 is lower, thus worse.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Ulcer Ratio of 15 in the last 5 years of Invesco Frontier Markets ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.32 )
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index is 12 , which is larger, thus worse than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum DrawDown of -33.6 days in the last 5 years of Invesco Frontier Markets ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Compared with SPY (-24.5 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -26.6 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Which means for our asset as example:- The maximum time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of Invesco Frontier Markets ETF is 524 days, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (488 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days below previous high is 469 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 488 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The average days below previous high over 5 years of Invesco Frontier Markets ETF is 209 days, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (124 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (179 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 165 days is lower, thus better.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Invesco Frontier Markets ETF are hypothetical and do not account for slippage, fees or taxes.