'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The total return, or performance over 5 years of iShares MSCI South Korea ETF is 8.7%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (78.4%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the total return is 26.3%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 44.1% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 1.7% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI South Korea ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (12.3%)
- Compared with SPY (12.9%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 8.1% is lower, thus worse.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the historical 30 days volatility of 26.3% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI South Korea ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (19.9%)
- During the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation is 29.5%, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 23.1% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The downside volatility over 5 years of iShares MSCI South Korea ETF is 19.2%, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (14.6%) in the same period.
- Looking at downside deviation in of 21.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (16.9%).

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of iShares MSCI South Korea ETF is -0.03, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.49) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) is 0.19, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.45 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The ratio of annual return and downside deviation over 5 years of iShares MSCI South Korea ETF is -0.04, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.67) in the same period.
- Looking at downside risk / excess return profile in of 0.26 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.62).

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (6.16 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Downside risk index of 19 of iShares MSCI South Korea ETF is higher, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio is 14 , which is larger, thus worse than the value of 6.87 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum DrawDown of -48.9 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI South Korea ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high is -39.2 days, which is lower, thus worse than the value of -33.7 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum days below previous high of 712 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI South Korea ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (139 days)
- Compared with SPY (119 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 344 days is greater, thus worse.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (35 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 260 days of iShares MSCI South Korea ETF is higher, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the average days under water is 106 days, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 27 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares MSCI South Korea ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.