'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the total return, or performance of 32.4% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Mexico ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (60.6%)
- Compared with SPY (38%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return of 97.9% is greater, thus better.

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (10%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 5.8% of iShares MSCI Mexico ETF is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) is 25.6%, which is greater, thus better than the value of 11.3% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the 30 days standard deviation of 27.2% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Mexico ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (21.5%)
- During the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation is 21.4%, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 17.9% from the benchmark.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside deviation of 20.2% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Mexico ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (15.5%)
- Compared with SPY (12.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk of 14.5% is greater, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) over 5 years of iShares MSCI Mexico ETF is 0.12, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.35) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) is 1.08, which is larger, thus better than the value of 0.49 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The ratio of annual return and downside deviation over 5 years of iShares MSCI Mexico ETF is 0.16, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.48) in the same period.
- Looking at downside risk / excess return profile in of 1.59 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.71).

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Ulcer Ratio of 16 in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Mexico ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.55 )
- Compared with SPY (10 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Downside risk index of 6.91 is lower, thus better.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The maximum reduction from previous high over 5 years of iShares MSCI Mexico ETF is -49.4 days, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley is -19.7 days, which is greater, thus better than the value of -24.5 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (431 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum days under water of 673 days of iShares MSCI Mexico ETF is greater, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is 191 days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 431 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the average time in days below previous high water mark of 209 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Mexico ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (105 days)
- Looking at average days below previous high in of 41 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (144 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares MSCI Mexico ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.