'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The total return, or increase in value over 5 years of iShares MSCI United Kingdom ETF is 13.1%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (60.6%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the total return is 41.5%, which is larger, thus better than the value of 38% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The annual return (CAGR) over 5 years of iShares MSCI United Kingdom ETF is 2.5%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (10%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (11.3%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 12.3% is higher, thus better.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The historical 30 days volatility over 5 years of iShares MSCI United Kingdom ETF is 22.1%, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (21.5%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (17.9%) in the period of the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 18.3% is greater, thus worse.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside deviation of 16.3% of iShares MSCI United Kingdom ETF is larger, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the downside volatility is 12.7%, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 12.5% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of iShares MSCI United Kingdom ETF is 0, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.35) in the same period.
- Looking at ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) in of 0.53 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus better in comparison to SPY (0.49).

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.48) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of 0 of iShares MSCI United Kingdom ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (0.71) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 0.77 is larger, thus better.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Ulcer Ratio of 12 in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI United Kingdom ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.55 )
- Compared with SPY (10 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio of 7.08 is smaller, thus better.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -42.5 days of iShares MSCI United Kingdom ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum reduction from previous high in of -24.9 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-24.5 days).

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 348 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI United Kingdom ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (431 days)
- Looking at maximum days under water in of 293 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (431 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the average days below previous high of 108 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI United Kingdom ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (105 days)
- Looking at average time in days below previous high water mark in of 74 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (144 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares MSCI United Kingdom ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.