'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investmentâ€™s overall performance.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the total return, or increase in value of 2.3% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Spain ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (68.1%)
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value is 42%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 47% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 0.5% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Spain ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (11%)
- During the last 3 years, the annual return (CAGR) is 12.4%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 13.7% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the historical 30 days volatility of 24.6% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Spain ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (21.4%)
- Looking at 30 days standard deviation in of 22.3% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (18.7%).

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside risk over 5 years of iShares MSCI Spain ETF is 18.3%, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (15.4%) in the same period.
- Looking at downside deviation in of 15.3% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (13.3%).

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.4) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of -0.08 of iShares MSCI Spain ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at Sharpe Ratio in of 0.44 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.6).

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of -0.11 in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Spain ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.55)
- Looking at ratio of annual return and downside deviation in of 0.65 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.84).

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the Ulcer Ratio of 15 in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Spain ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.45 )
- Looking at Ulcer Index in of 13 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (10 ).

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The maximum reduction from previous high over 5 years of iShares MSCI Spain ETF is -39.8 days, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (-24.5 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown of -33.9 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum days below previous high of 710 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Spain ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (351 days)
- Looking at maximum days under water in of 464 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (351 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (78 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average days under water of 290 days of iShares MSCI Spain ETF is higher, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (101 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days under water of 162 days is greater, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
[Show Details]

- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares MSCI Spain ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.