'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The total return, or increase in value over 5 years of iShares MSCI Spain ETF is 25.3%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (80%) in the same period.
- Looking at total return, or increase in value in of 24.9% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (31.8%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (12.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of 4.6% of iShares MSCI Spain ETF is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) is 7.7%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 9.7% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The 30 days standard deviation over 5 years of iShares MSCI Spain ETF is 24.5%, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (21.3%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (17.6%) in the period of the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation of 20.4% is larger, thus worse.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside deviation of 18% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Spain ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (15.3%)
- Compared with SPY (12.3%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside risk of 14.2% is greater, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of iShares MSCI Spain ETF is 0.09, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.47) in the same period.
- Looking at risk / return profile (Sharpe) in of 0.25 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.41).

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of 0.12 in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Spain ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.66)
- Looking at ratio of annual return and downside deviation in of 0.37 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.58).

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the Ulcer Index of 14 in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Spain ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.43 )
- Looking at Ulcer Index in of 13 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (10 ).

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The maximum reduction from previous high over 5 years of iShares MSCI Spain ETF is -38.5 days, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high is -33.9 days, which is lower, thus worse than the value of -24.5 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (480 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 464 days of iShares MSCI Spain ETF is smaller, thus better.
- Looking at maximum days under water in of 464 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (480 days).

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The average days under water over 5 years of iShares MSCI Spain ETF is 143 days, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (119 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average days under water in of 160 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (174 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares MSCI Spain ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.