'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (102%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return of 66.3% of iShares MSCI Netherlands Index Fund is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value is -1.9%, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 31.5% from the benchmark.

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The annual return (CAGR) over 5 years of iShares MSCI Netherlands Index Fund is 10.7%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (15.1%) in the same period.
- Looking at annual performance (CAGR) in of -0.6% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (9.6%).

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the historical 30 days volatility of 24.9% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Netherlands Index Fund, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (20.9%)
- Looking at volatility in of 24.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (17.6%).

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The downside deviation over 5 years of iShares MSCI Netherlands Index Fund is 17.6%, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (14.9%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside deviation is 16.9%, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 12.4% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.6) in the period of the last 5 years, the Sharpe Ratio of 0.33 of iShares MSCI Netherlands Index Fund is smaller, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (0.4) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of -0.13 is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.47 in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Netherlands Index Fund, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.84)
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile is -0.18, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.57 from the benchmark.

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Downside risk index over 5 years of iShares MSCI Netherlands Index Fund is 17 , which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (9.32 ) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Downside risk index is 21 , which is greater, thus worse than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the maximum drop from peak to valley of -43.6 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Netherlands Index Fund, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Compared with SPY (-24.5 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -43.3 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum days below previous high of 675 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Netherlands Index Fund, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (488 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days under water is 668 days, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 488 days from the benchmark.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The average days under water over 5 years of iShares MSCI Netherlands Index Fund is 206 days, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (123 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (177 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days under water of 302 days is larger, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares MSCI Netherlands Index Fund are hypothetical and do not account for slippage, fees or taxes.