'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (101.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or performance of 17.6% of iShares MSCI Belgium ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (29.7%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return, or performance of -1.2% is lower, thus worse.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The annual return (CAGR) over 5 years of iShares MSCI Belgium ETF is 3.3%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (15.1%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) is -0.4%, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 9.1% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the volatility of 22.2% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Belgium ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (20.9%)
- During the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation is 18.6%, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 17.6% from the benchmark.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (14.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside volatility of 16.2% of iShares MSCI Belgium ETF is greater, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (12.3%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside volatility of 13.1% is greater, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The Sharpe Ratio over 5 years of iShares MSCI Belgium ETF is 0.04, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.6) in the same period.
- Looking at Sharpe Ratio in of -0.16 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.37).

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.84) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of 0.05 of iShares MSCI Belgium ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile is -0.22, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.53 from the benchmark.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Ulcer Index over 5 years of iShares MSCI Belgium ETF is 15 , which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (9.32 ) in the same period.
- Looking at Ulcer Ratio in of 14 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (10 ).

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum DrawDown of -38.2 days of iShares MSCI Belgium ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown is -33.1 days, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of -24.5 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (488 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum days below previous high of 852 days of iShares MSCI Belgium ETF is higher, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (488 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 716 days is greater, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The average time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of iShares MSCI Belgium ETF is 325 days, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (123 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark is 344 days, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 177 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares MSCI Belgium ETF are hypothetical and do not account for slippage, fees or taxes.