'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The total return, or performance over 5 years of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund is -9.4%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (60.7%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (29.5%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return, or performance of -9.5% is smaller, thus worse.

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of -2% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (10%)
- During the last 3 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) is -3.3%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 9% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (20.8%) in the period of the last 5 years, the volatility of 20% of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund is lower, thus better.
- Looking at 30 days standard deviation in of 21.8% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (24%).

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.3%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside deviation of 14.5% of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund is lower, thus better.
- Compared with SPY (17.6%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside volatility of 15.9% is smaller, thus better.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The Sharpe Ratio over 5 years of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund is -0.22, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.36) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.27) in the period of the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of -0.27 is smaller, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The downside risk / excess return profile over 5 years of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund is -0.31, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.49) in the same period.
- Looking at downside risk / excess return profile in of -0.36 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.37).

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (7.52 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Ratio of 12 of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund is higher, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (8.81 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio of 13 is higher, thus worse.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The maximum reduction from previous high over 5 years of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund is -31.1 days, which is greater, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the same period.
- Looking at maximum reduction from previous high in of -28.9 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus better in comparison to SPY (-33.7 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 448 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (182 days)
- Looking at maximum days below previous high in of 333 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (182 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the average time in days below previous high water mark of 165 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (45 days)
- During the last 3 years, the average days below previous high is 120 days, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 43 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.