'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The total return, or performance over 5 years of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund is -3.4%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (58.9%) in the same period.
- Looking at total return, or increase in value in of 5.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (33.9%).

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The annual return (CAGR) over 5 years of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund is -0.7%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (9.7%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) is 1.8%, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 10.2% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The volatility over 5 years of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund is 21.1%, which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (21.6%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (25%) in the period of the last 3 years, the volatility of 22.9% is lower, thus better.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.7%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk of 15.1% of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund is smaller, thus better.
- Looking at downside risk in of 16.3% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (18.1%).

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of -0.15 in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.33)
- Looking at Sharpe Ratio in of -0.03 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.31).

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside risk / excess return profile over 5 years of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund is -0.21, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.46) in the same period.
- Looking at excess return divided by the downside deviation in of -0.05 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.43).

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (8.91 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Downside risk index of 14 of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund is larger, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio is 15 , which is larger, thus worse than the value of 11 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -40.4 days of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund is smaller, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum DrawDown in of -40.4 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-33.7 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 448 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (271 days)
- Compared with SPY (271 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days below previous high of 422 days is larger, thus worse.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (60 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average days under water of 170 days of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund is greater, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (72 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days under water of 150 days is higher, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares MSCI Hong Kong Index Fund are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.