'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The total return over 5 years of iShares MSCI Peru ETF is 27.1%, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (74.2%) in the same period.
- Looking at total return in of 5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (50.1%).

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The annual performance (CAGR) over 5 years of iShares MSCI Peru ETF is 4.9%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (11.8%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the annual return (CAGR) is 1.6%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 14.5% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the historical 30 days volatility of 18.3% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Peru ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (13.3%)
- Compared with SPY (13%) in the period of the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation of 14.4% is larger, thus worse.

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside volatility of 12.2% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Peru ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.6%)
- Compared with SPY (9.4%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside deviation of 10.4% is larger, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) over 5 years of iShares MSCI Peru ETF is 0.13, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.69) in the same period.
- Looking at risk / return profile (Sharpe) in of -0.06 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.93).

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.96) in the period of the last 5 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation of 0.2 of iShares MSCI Peru ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (1.27) in the period of the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation of -0.08 is lower, thus worse.

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (3.97 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Ulcer Index of 15 of iShares MSCI Peru ETF is larger, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the Downside risk index is 13 , which is higher, thus worse than the value of 4.1 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-19.3 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum DrawDown of -42 days of iShares MSCI Peru ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum drop from peak to valley in of -24.5 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-19.3 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (187 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 463 days of iShares MSCI Peru ETF is higher, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days under water is 463 days, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 139 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the average time in days below previous high water mark of 130 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Peru ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (42 days)
- Looking at average days below previous high in of 162 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (37 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares MSCI Peru ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.