'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (93.6%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or increase in value of 12.9% of iShares MSCI Pacific Ex-Japan Index Fund is smaller, thus worse.
- Looking at total return in of -5.9% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (33.2%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the annual performance (CAGR) of 2.5% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Pacific Ex-Japan Index Fund, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (14.2%)
- Compared with SPY (10%) in the period of the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of -2% is lower, thus worse.

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the volatility of 22.3% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Pacific Ex-Japan Index Fund, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (20.9%)
- During the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility is 17.5%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 17.5% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside risk of 16.2% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Pacific Ex-Japan Index Fund, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (15%)
- During the last 3 years, the downside deviation is 12.2%, which is higher, thus worse than the value of 12.2% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of 0 in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Pacific Ex-Japan Index Fund, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.56)
- During the last 3 years, the Sharpe Ratio is -0.26, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.43 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.78) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of 0 of iShares MSCI Pacific Ex-Japan Index Fund is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation is -0.37, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.62 from the benchmark.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (9.33 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Downside risk index of 12 of iShares MSCI Pacific Ex-Japan Index Fund is larger, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index is 12 , which is greater, thus worse than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -39.3 days of iShares MSCI Pacific Ex-Japan Index Fund is smaller, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley is -26.3 days, which is lower, thus worse than the value of -24.5 days from the benchmark.

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (488 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum days under water of 681 days of iShares MSCI Pacific Ex-Japan Index Fund is higher, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days below previous high is 681 days, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 488 days from the benchmark.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the average time in days below previous high water mark of 222 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Pacific Ex-Japan Index Fund, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (123 days)
- Looking at average days below previous high in of 315 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (180 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares MSCI Pacific Ex-Japan Index Fund are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.