'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (80.4%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or performance of -16.5% of iShares MSCI Philippines ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (30.7%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return, or increase in value of -15.7% is smaller, thus worse.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (12.6%) in the period of the last 5 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of -3.6% of iShares MSCI Philippines ETF is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the annual return (CAGR) is -5.6%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 9.4% from the benchmark.

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The volatility over 5 years of iShares MSCI Philippines ETF is 25.5%, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (21.3%) in the same period.
- Looking at historical 30 days volatility in of 18.4% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (17.6%).

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the downside volatility of 19.3% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Philippines ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (15.3%)
- Looking at downside volatility in of 12.8% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (12.3%).

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.47) in the period of the last 5 years, the Sharpe Ratio of -0.24 of iShares MSCI Philippines ETF is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) is -0.44, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.39 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The excess return divided by the downside deviation over 5 years of iShares MSCI Philippines ETF is -0.31, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.66) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.56) in the period of the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation of -0.63 is lower, thus worse.

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (9.43 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Downside risk index of 21 of iShares MSCI Philippines ETF is greater, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio is 16 , which is greater, thus worse than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -48.2 days of iShares MSCI Philippines ETF is smaller, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum reduction from previous high in of -33 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-24.5 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum days below previous high of 1103 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Philippines ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (479 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is 513 days, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 479 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the average days below previous high of 494 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI Philippines ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (119 days)
- Looking at average days under water in of 206 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (173 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares MSCI Philippines ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.