'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (61.3%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return of 4.3% of iShares MSCI New Zealand ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at total return, or performance in of -11.1% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (31.6%).

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the annual performance (CAGR) of 0.9% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI New Zealand ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (10%)
- Looking at annual performance (CAGR) in of -3.8% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (9.6%).

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the historical 30 days volatility of 23.1% in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI New Zealand ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (20.8%)
- Compared with SPY (24%) in the period of the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 27.4% is higher, thus worse.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside deviation over 5 years of iShares MSCI New Zealand ETF is 16.7%, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (15.3%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (17.6%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside volatility of 20% is higher, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.36) in the period of the last 5 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of -0.07 of iShares MSCI New Zealand ETF is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) is -0.23, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.3 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.49) in the period of the last 5 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of -0.1 of iShares MSCI New Zealand ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (0.4) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of -0.32 is lower, thus worse.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (7.61 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Downside risk index of 13 of iShares MSCI New Zealand ETF is larger, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (8.93 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio of 17 is larger, thus worse.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -39.6 days of iShares MSCI New Zealand ETF is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley is -39.6 days, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of -33.7 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The maximum days under water over 5 years of iShares MSCI New Zealand ETF is 434 days, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (185 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (185 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 434 days is larger, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the average days under water of 101 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI New Zealand ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (46 days)
- During the last 3 years, the average days under water is 147 days, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 44 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares MSCI New Zealand ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.