'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The total return over 5 years of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF is -3.8%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (94.8%) in the same period.
- Looking at total return, or performance in of -50.3% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (31.6%).

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) over 5 years of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF is -0.8%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (14.3%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) is -20.8%, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 9.6% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the 30 days standard deviation of 36.4% in the last 5 years of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (20.9%)
- Compared with SPY (17.3%) in the period of the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation of 38.4% is greater, thus worse.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The downside deviation over 5 years of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF is 24.8%, which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (15%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside volatility is 25.7%, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 12.1% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the Sharpe Ratio of -0.09 in the last 5 years of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.56)
- Compared with SPY (0.41) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of -0.61 is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of -0.13 in the last 5 years of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.79)
- Compared with SPY (0.59) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of -0.91 is lower, thus worse.

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Ulcer Index of 44 in the last 5 years of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.33 )
- Compared with SPY (10 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Downside risk index of 48 is larger, thus worse.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum DrawDown of -73.2 days in the last 5 years of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Looking at maximum DrawDown in of -67.4 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-24.5 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The maximum days under water over 5 years of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF is 792 days, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (488 days) in the same period.
- Looking at maximum days under water in of 743 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (488 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (123 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average days under water of 277 days of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF is larger, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the average days under water is 367 days, which is greater, thus worse than the value of 179 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.