'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the total return of -6.8% in the last 5 years of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (57.1%)
- Looking at total return in of -44.5% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (32%).

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of -1.4% in the last 5 years of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.5%)
- Looking at compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) in of -17.9% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (9.7%).

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (21.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 37.3% of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF is greater, thus worse.
- Looking at 30 days standard deviation in of 40.6% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (17.9%).

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside deviation of 25.4% of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF is higher, thus worse.
- Looking at downside volatility in of 27.2% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (12.5%).

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF is -0.1, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.32) in the same period.
- Looking at ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) in of -0.5 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.41).

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the excess return divided by the downside deviation of -0.15 in the last 5 years of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.45)
- Looking at excess return divided by the downside deviation in of -0.75 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.58).

'Ulcer Index is a method for measuring investment risk that addresses the real concerns of investors, unlike the widely used standard deviation of return. UI is a measure of the depth and duration of drawdowns in prices from earlier highs. Using Ulcer Index instead of standard deviation can lead to very different conclusions about investment risk and risk-adjusted return, especially when evaluating strategies that seek to avoid major declines in portfolio value (market timing, dynamic asset allocation, hedge funds, etc.). The Ulcer Index was originally developed in 1987. Since then, it has been widely recognized and adopted by the investment community. According to Nelson Freeburg, editor of Formula Research, Ulcer Index is “perhaps the most fully realized statistical portrait of risk there is.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the Downside risk index of 39 in the last 5 years of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.57 )
- Looking at Ulcer Index in of 50 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (10 ).

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -73.2 days of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum drop from peak to valley in of -73.2 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-24.5 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (439 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 661 days of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF is higher, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum days under water in of 661 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (439 days).

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (106 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 203 days of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF is higher, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (149 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of 304 days is higher, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Emerging Markets Internet and Ecommerce ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.