'Total return, when measuring performance, is the actual rate of return of an investment or a pool of investments over a given evaluation period. Total return includes interest, capital gains, dividends and distributions realized over a given period of time. Total return accounts for two categories of return: income including interest paid by fixed-income investments, distributions or dividends and capital appreciation, representing the change in the market price of an asset.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (58.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or increase in value of -38.8% of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the total return is -30.2%, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 33.9% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate isn't a true return rate, but rather a representational figure. It is essentially a number that describes the rate at which an investment would have grown if it had grown the same rate every year and the profits were reinvested at the end of each year. In reality, this sort of performance is unlikely. However, CAGR can be used to smooth returns so that they may be more easily understood when compared to alternative investments.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the annual performance (CAGR) of -9.4% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.7%)
- Looking at annual return (CAGR) in of -11.3% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (10.2%).

'Volatility is a rate at which the price of a security increases or decreases for a given set of returns. Volatility is measured by calculating the standard deviation of the annualized returns over a given period of time. It shows the range to which the price of a security may increase or decrease. Volatility measures the risk of a security. It is used in option pricing formula to gauge the fluctuations in the returns of the underlying assets. Volatility indicates the pricing behavior of the security and helps estimate the fluctuations that may happen in a short period of time.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The volatility over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is 24.1%, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (21.6%) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (25%) in the period of the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 25.8% is greater, thus worse.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside risk of 17.6% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (15.7%)
- Compared with SPY (18.1%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside deviation of 18.8% is greater, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is -0.49, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.33) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Sharpe Ratio is -0.53, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.31 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of -0.68 in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.46)
- During the last 3 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation is -0.73, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.43 from the benchmark.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the Downside risk index of 33 in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (8.91 )
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Index is 21 , which is larger, thus worse than the value of 11 from the benchmark.

'Maximum drawdown measures the loss in any losing period during a fund’s investment record. It is defined as the percent retrenchment from a fund’s peak value to the fund’s valley value. The drawdown is in effect from the time the fund’s retrenchment begins until a new fund high is reached. The maximum drawdown encompasses both the period from the fund’s peak to the fund’s valley (length), and the time from the fund’s valley to a new fund high (recovery). It measures the largest percentage drawdown that has occurred in any fund’s data record.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -56 days of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum reduction from previous high in of -41.3 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-33.7 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs). Many assume Max DD Duration is the length of time between new highs during which the Max DD (magnitude) occurred. But that isn’t always the case. The Max DD duration is the longest time between peaks, period. So it could be the time when the program also had its biggest peak to valley loss (and usually is, because the program needs a long time to recover from the largest loss), but it doesn’t have to be'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The maximum days below previous high over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is 1194 days, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (271 days) in the same period.
- Looking at maximum time in days below previous high water mark in of 752 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to SPY (271 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the average days below previous high of 576 days in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (60 days)
- Compared with SPY (72 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days under water of 376 days is higher, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.