'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the total return, or performance of -51.9% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (64.1%)
- Looking at total return, or increase in value in of -11.1% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (48.1%).

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is -13.8%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (10.4%) in the same period.
- Looking at annual performance (CAGR) in of -3.9% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (14%).

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the 30 days standard deviation of 26.5% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF, we see it is relatively larger, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (13.6%)
- During the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility is 24.4%, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 12.8% from the benchmark.

'Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (14.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside deviation of 28.4% of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is larger, thus worse.
- Looking at downside risk in of 27.8% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (14.5%).

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The risk / return profile (Sharpe) over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is -0.62, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.58) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the Sharpe Ratio is -0.26, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.9 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.53) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of -0.57 of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation is -0.23, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.79 from the benchmark.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Ulcer Index over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is 48 , which is larger, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (4.02 ) in the same period.
- Looking at Ulcer Index in of 23 in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (4.09 ).

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The maximum reduction from previous high over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is -64.1 days, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (-19.3 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (-19.3 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of -35.7 days is smaller, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (187 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark of 1244 days of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is larger, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum days below previous high in of 361 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (139 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the average days under water of 623 days in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (41 days)
- Compared with SPY (35 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days below previous high of 171 days is larger, thus worse.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- "Year" returns in the table above are not equal to the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.