'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (67.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return of -40.8% of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at total return in of -10% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (44.5%).

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (10.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of -10% of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the annual performance (CAGR) is -3.5%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 13.1% from the benchmark.

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the historical 30 days volatility of 24.3% in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (21.4%)
- Compared with SPY (18.7%) in the period of the last 3 years, the volatility of 22.2% is larger, thus worse.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.4%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside volatility of 17.8% of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is higher, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (13.3%) in the period of the last 3 years, the downside deviation of 16.2% is larger, thus worse.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the Sharpe Ratio of -0.51 in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.39)
- Compared with SPY (0.56) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of -0.27 is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- The ratio of annual return and downside deviation over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is -0.7, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.55) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside risk / excess return profile is -0.37, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.79 from the benchmark.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (9.47 ) in the period of the last 5 years, the Downside risk index of 28 of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is higher, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the Downside risk index is 20 , which is larger, thus worse than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum drop from peak to valley of -51.4 days in the last 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Looking at maximum reduction from previous high in of -41.9 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (-24.5 days).

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (354 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum days below previous high of 1236 days of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is greater, thus worse.
- Looking at maximum time in days below previous high water mark in of 350 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (354 days).

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The average days under water over 5 years of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF is 609 days, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (79 days) in the same period.
- Looking at average time in days below previous high water mark in of 122 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (102 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of VanEck Vectors Egypt Index ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.