'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (61.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the total return, or performance of % of Defiance Hotel, Airline, and Cruise ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at total return, or increase in value in of % in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to SPY (79.4%).

'Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a business and investing specific term for the geometric progression ratio that provides a constant rate of return over the time period. CAGR is not an accounting term, but it is often used to describe some element of the business, for example revenue, units delivered, registered users, etc. CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. It is particularly useful to compare growth rates from various data sets of common domain such as revenue growth of companies in the same industry.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) over 5 years of Defiance Hotel, Airline, and Cruise ETF is %, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (10.1%) in the same period.
- Looking at annual return (CAGR) in of % in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (21.5%).

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (21.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the 30 days standard deviation of % of Defiance Hotel, Airline, and Cruise ETF is smaller, thus better.
- Looking at 30 days standard deviation in of % in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (21.2%).

'Downside risk is the financial risk associated with losses. That is, it is the risk of the actual return being below the expected return, or the uncertainty about the magnitude of that difference. Risk measures typically quantify the downside risk, whereas the standard deviation (an example of a deviation risk measure) measures both the upside and downside risk. Specifically, downside risk in our definition is the semi-deviation, that is the standard deviation of all negative returns.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the downside deviation of % in the last 5 years of Defiance Hotel, Airline, and Cruise ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (15.5%)
- Looking at downside deviation in of % in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (14.1%).

'The Sharpe ratio was developed by Nobel laureate William F. Sharpe, and is used to help investors understand the return of an investment compared to its risk. The ratio is the average return earned in excess of the risk-free rate per unit of volatility or total risk. Subtracting the risk-free rate from the mean return allows an investor to better isolate the profits associated with risk-taking activities. One intuition of this calculation is that a portfolio engaging in 'zero risk' investments, such as the purchase of U.S. Treasury bills (for which the expected return is the risk-free rate), has a Sharpe ratio of exactly zero. Generally, the greater the value of the Sharpe ratio, the more attractive the risk-adjusted return.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.36) in the period of the last 5 years, the Sharpe Ratio of of Defiance Hotel, Airline, and Cruise ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (0.9) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of return and volatility (Sharpe) of is lower, thus worse.

'The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-specified target or required rate of return, while the Sharpe ratio penalizes both upside and downside volatility equally. Though both ratios measure an investment's risk-adjusted return, they do so in significantly different ways that will frequently lead to differing conclusions as to the true nature of the investment's return-generating efficiency. The Sortino ratio is used as a way to compare the risk-adjusted performance of programs with differing risk and return profiles. In general, risk-adjusted returns seek to normalize the risk across programs and then see which has the higher return unit per risk.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.49) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk / excess return profile of of Defiance Hotel, Airline, and Cruise ETF is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation is , which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 1.35 from the benchmark.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the Ulcer Index of in the last 5 years of Defiance Hotel, Airline, and Cruise ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.15 )
- Compared with SPY (9.78 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Downside risk index of is smaller, thus better.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum DrawDown of days of Defiance Hotel, Airline, and Cruise ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (-24.5 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of days is smaller, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum days under water of days in the last 5 years of Defiance Hotel, Airline, and Cruise ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (305 days)
- During the last 3 years, the maximum days under water is days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 305 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (65 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark of days of Defiance Hotel, Airline, and Cruise ETF is lower, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the average days under water is days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 80 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of Defiance Hotel, Airline, and Cruise ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.