'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the total return, or performance of % in the last 5 years of ARK Space Exploration & Innovation ETF, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (67.7%)
- Compared with SPY (37%) in the period of the last 3 years, the total return, or performance of % is lower, thus worse.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (10.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the annual performance (CAGR) of % of ARK Space Exploration & Innovation ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at annual performance (CAGR) in of % in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (11.1%).

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (21.4%) in the period of the last 5 years, the volatility of % of ARK Space Exploration & Innovation ETF is lower, thus better.
- During the last 3 years, the 30 days standard deviation is %, which is lower, thus better than the value of 24.8% from the benchmark.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (15.5%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk of % of ARK Space Exploration & Innovation ETF is lower, thus better.
- Looking at downside deviation in of % in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (17.9%).

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the Sharpe Ratio of in the last 5 years of ARK Space Exploration & Innovation ETF, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.39)
- Looking at risk / return profile (Sharpe) in of in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (0.34).

'The Sortino ratio improves upon the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside volatility from total volatility by dividing excess return by the downside deviation. The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that differentiates harmful volatility from total overall volatility by using the asset's standard deviation of negative asset returns, called downside deviation. The Sortino ratio takes the asset's return and subtracts the risk-free rate, and then divides that amount by the asset's downside deviation. The ratio was named after Frank A. Sortino.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside risk / excess return profile over 5 years of ARK Space Exploration & Innovation ETF is , which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.54) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (0.48) in the period of the last 3 years, the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of is smaller, thus worse.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Ulcer Index over 5 years of ARK Space Exploration & Innovation ETF is , which is smaller, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (8.47 ) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (10 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio of is lower, thus better.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 5 years, the maximum reduction from previous high of days of ARK Space Exploration & Innovation ETF is lower, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (-33.7 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum DrawDown of days is smaller, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The maximum days under water over 5 years of ARK Space Exploration & Innovation ETF is days, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (231 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the maximum time in days below previous high water mark is days, which is lower, thus better than the value of 231 days from the benchmark.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The average days below previous high over 5 years of ARK Space Exploration & Innovation ETF is days, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (54 days) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (58 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the average days under water of days is lower, thus better.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of ARK Space Exploration & Innovation ETF are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.