'Total return is the amount of value an investor earns from a security over a specific period, typically one year, when all distributions are reinvested. Total return is expressed as a percentage of the amount invested. For example, a total return of 20% means the security increased by 20% of its original value due to a price increase, distribution of dividends (if a stock), coupons (if a bond) or capital gains (if a fund). Total return is a strong measure of an investment’s overall performance.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The total return, or performance over 5 years of iShares MSCI ACWI Index Fund is 39.9%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (68.1%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or performance is 37.1%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 47% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The annual return (CAGR) over 5 years of iShares MSCI ACWI Index Fund is 7%, which is lower, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (11%) in the same period.
- Looking at compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) in of 11.1% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (13.7%).

'In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns. Historic volatility measures a time series of past market prices. Implied volatility looks forward in time, being derived from the market price of a market-traded derivative (in particular, an option). Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (21.4%) in the period of the last 5 years, the volatility of 20.3% of iShares MSCI ACWI Index Fund is smaller, thus better.
- Looking at historical 30 days volatility in of 17.6% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively smaller, thus better in comparison to SPY (18.7%).

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The downside deviation over 5 years of iShares MSCI ACWI Index Fund is 14.8%, which is lower, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (15.4%) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the downside volatility is 12.4%, which is lower, thus better than the value of 13.3% from the benchmark.

'The Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk. The ratio measures the excess return (or risk premium) per unit of deviation in an investment asset or a trading strategy, typically referred to as risk, named after William F. Sharpe.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.4) in the period of the last 5 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) of 0.22 of iShares MSCI ACWI Index Fund is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) is 0.49, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.6 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The excess return divided by the downside deviation over 5 years of iShares MSCI ACWI Index Fund is 0.3, which is smaller, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (0.55) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation is 0.69, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.84 from the benchmark.

'The Ulcer Index is a technical indicator that measures downside risk, in terms of both the depth and duration of price declines. The index increases in value as the price moves farther away from a recent high and falls as the price rises to new highs. The indicator is usually calculated over a 14-day period, with the Ulcer Index showing the percentage drawdown a trader can expect from the high over that period. The greater the value of the Ulcer Index, the longer it takes for a stock to get back to the former high.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the Downside risk index of 9.85 in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI ACWI Index Fund, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (9.45 )
- During the last 3 years, the Ulcer Ratio is 11 , which is greater, thus worse than the value of 10 from the benchmark.

'A maximum drawdown is the maximum loss from a peak to a trough of a portfolio, before a new peak is attained. Maximum Drawdown is an indicator of downside risk over a specified time period. It can be used both as a stand-alone measure or as an input into other metrics such as 'Return over Maximum Drawdown' and the Calmar Ratio. Maximum Drawdown is expressed in percentage terms.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum DrawDown of -33.5 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI ACWI Index Fund, we see it is relatively higher, thus better in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-33.7 days)
- Compared with SPY (-24.5 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -26.4 days is lower, thus worse.

'The Maximum Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. It is the length of time the account was in the Max Drawdown. A Max Drawdown measures a retrenchment from when an equity curve reaches a new high. It’s the maximum an account lost during that retrenchment. This method is applied because a valley can’t be measured until a new high occurs. Once the new high is reached, the percentage change from the old high to the bottom of the largest trough is recorded.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Looking at the maximum days under water of 351 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI ACWI Index Fund, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (351 days)
- Compared with SPY (351 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum days under water of 351 days is greater, thus worse.

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the average days below previous high of 78 days in the last 5 years of iShares MSCI ACWI Index Fund, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (78 days)
- Looking at average time in days below previous high water mark in of 100 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus better in comparison to SPY (101 days).

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- Note that yearly returns do not equal the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of iShares MSCI ACWI Index Fund are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.