'The total return on a portfolio of investments takes into account not only the capital appreciation on the portfolio, but also the income received on the portfolio. The income typically consists of interest, dividends, and securities lending fees. This contrasts with the price return, which takes into account only the capital gain on an investment.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the total return, or increase in value of -71% in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Financials, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (67.3%)
- During the last 3 years, the total return, or performance is -59.2%, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 46.1% from the benchmark.

'The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) is a useful measure of growth over multiple time periods. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment value to the ending investment value if you assume that the investment has been compounding over the time period.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (10.9%) in the period of the last 5 years, the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of -21.9% of ProShares UltraShort Financials is lower, thus worse.
- Looking at compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) in of -25.8% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to SPY (13.5%).

'Volatility is a statistical measure of the dispersion of returns for a given security or market index. Volatility can either be measured by using the standard deviation or variance between returns from that same security or market index. Commonly, the higher the volatility, the riskier the security. In the securities markets, volatility is often associated with big swings in either direction. For example, when the stock market rises and falls more than one percent over a sustained period of time, it is called a 'volatile' market.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (13.2%) in the period of the last 5 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 130.3% of ProShares UltraShort Financials is higher, thus worse.
- Compared with SPY (12.4%) in the period of the last 3 years, the historical 30 days volatility of 27.7% is greater, thus worse.

'The downside volatility is similar to the volatility, or standard deviation, but only takes losing/negative periods into account.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (14.6%) in the period of the last 5 years, the downside risk of 54.1% of ProShares UltraShort Financials is higher, thus worse.
- Looking at downside volatility in of 25.3% in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively higher, thus worse in comparison to SPY (14%).

'The Sharpe ratio is the measure of risk-adjusted return of a financial portfolio. Sharpe ratio is a measure of excess portfolio return over the risk-free rate relative to its standard deviation. Normally, the 90-day Treasury bill rate is taken as the proxy for risk-free rate. A portfolio with a higher Sharpe ratio is considered superior relative to its peers. The measure was named after William F Sharpe, a Nobel laureate and professor of finance, emeritus at Stanford University.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- Compared with the benchmark SPY (0.63) in the period of the last 5 years, the Sharpe Ratio of -0.19 of ProShares UltraShort Financials is lower, thus worse.
- During the last 3 years, the risk / return profile (Sharpe) is -1.02, which is smaller, thus worse than the value of 0.88 from the benchmark.

'The Sortino ratio, a variation of the Sharpe ratio only factors in the downside, or negative volatility, rather than the total volatility used in calculating the Sharpe ratio. The theory behind the Sortino variation is that upside volatility is a plus for the investment, and it, therefore, should not be included in the risk calculation. Therefore, the Sortino ratio takes upside volatility out of the equation and uses only the downside standard deviation in its calculation instead of the total standard deviation that is used in calculating the Sharpe ratio.'

Using this definition on our asset we see for example:- Looking at the ratio of annual return and downside deviation of -0.45 in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Financials, we see it is relatively lower, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (0.57)
- During the last 3 years, the excess return divided by the downside deviation is -1.12, which is lower, thus worse than the value of 0.79 from the benchmark.

'The ulcer index is a stock market risk measure or technical analysis indicator devised by Peter Martin in 1987, and published by him and Byron McCann in their 1989 book The Investors Guide to Fidelity Funds. It's designed as a measure of volatility, but only volatility in the downward direction, i.e. the amount of drawdown or retracement occurring over a period. Other volatility measures like standard deviation treat up and down movement equally, but a trader doesn't mind upward movement, it's the downside that causes stress and stomach ulcers that the index's name suggests.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The Ulcer Ratio over 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Financials is 79 , which is higher, thus better compared to the benchmark SPY (3.95 ) in the same period.
- Compared with SPY (4 ) in the period of the last 3 years, the Downside risk index of 48 is larger, thus better.

'Maximum drawdown is defined as the peak-to-trough decline of an investment during a specific period. It is usually quoted as a percentage of the peak value. The maximum drawdown can be calculated based on absolute returns, in order to identify strategies that suffer less during market downturns, such as low-volatility strategies. However, the maximum drawdown can also be calculated based on returns relative to a benchmark index, for identifying strategies that show steady outperformance over time.'

Which means for our asset as example:- Looking at the maximum DrawDown of -91.6 days in the last 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Financials, we see it is relatively smaller, thus worse in comparison to the benchmark SPY (-19.3 days)
- Compared with SPY (-19.3 days) in the period of the last 3 years, the maximum drop from peak to valley of -64.2 days is smaller, thus worse.

'The Drawdown Duration is the length of any peak to peak period, or the time between new equity highs. The Max Drawdown Duration is the worst (the maximum/longest) amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs) in days.'

Applying this definition to our asset in some examples:- The maximum days below previous high over 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Financials is 1102 days, which is higher, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (187 days) in the same period.
- Looking at maximum days below previous high in of 686 days in the period of the last 3 years, we see it is relatively greater, thus worse in comparison to SPY (131 days).

'The Average Drawdown Duration is an extension of the Maximum Drawdown. However, this metric does not explain the drawdown in dollars or percentages, rather in days, weeks, or months. The Avg Drawdown Duration is the average amount of time an investment has seen between peaks (equity highs), or in other terms the average of time under water of all drawdowns. So in contrast to the Maximum duration it does not measure only one drawdown event but calculates the average of all.'

Which means for our asset as example:- The average time in days below previous high water mark over 5 years of ProShares UltraShort Financials is 492 days, which is greater, thus worse compared to the benchmark SPY (39 days) in the same period.
- During the last 3 years, the average time in days below previous high water mark is 317 days, which is larger, thus worse than the value of 33 days from the benchmark.

Historical returns have been extended using synthetic data.
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- "Year" returns in the table above are not equal to the sum of monthly returns due to compounding.
- Performance results of ProShares UltraShort Financials are hypothetical, do not account for slippage, fees or taxes, and are based on backtesting, which has many inherent limitations, some of which are described in our Terms of Use.